PEAR is a framework and repository for reusable PHP components. PEAR stands for PHP Extension and Application Repository. It contains all types of PHP code snippets and libraries.
It also provides a command line interface to install “packages” automatically.
PHP data types are used to hold different types of data or values. There are 8 primitive data types which are further categorized in 3 types:
- Scalar types
- Compound types
- Special types
PHP print output a string. It is a language construct not a function. So the use of parentheses is not required with the argument list. Unlike echo, it always returns 1.
int print ( string $arg)
- WordPress: WordPress is a free and open-source content management system (CMS) based on PHP & MySQL. It includes a plug-in architecture and template system. It is mostly connected with blogging but supports another kind of web content, containing more traditional mailing lists and forums, media displays, and online stores.
- Joomla: Joomla is a free and open-source content management system (CMS) for distributing web content, created by Open Source Matters, Inc. It is based on a model-view-controller web application framework that can be used independently of the CMS.
- Magento: Magento is an open source E-trade programming, made by Varien Inc., which is valuable for online business. It has a flexible measured design and is versatile with many control alternatives that are useful for clients. Magento utilizes E-trade stage which offers organization extreme E-business arrangements and extensive support network.
- Drupal: Drupal is a CMS platform developed in PHP and distributed under the GNU (General Public License).
PHP single line comment is made in two ways:
- Using // (C++ style single line comment)
- Using # (Unix Shell style single line comment)
PHP multi-line comment is made by enclosing all lines within.
Echo can output one or more string but print can only output one string and always returns 1.
Echo is faster than print because it does not return any value.
For, while, do-while and for each.
- Yii 2
- Zend Framework etc.
A PHP variable is the name of the memory location that holds data. It is temporary storage.
The old name of PHP was Personal Home Page.
The PHP count() function is used to count total elements in the array, or something an object.
PHP has borrowed its syntax from Perl and C.
$message stores variable data while $$message is used to store variable of variables.
$message stores fixed data whereas the data stored in $$message may be changed dynamically.
In static websites, content can’t be changed after running the script. You can’t change anything on the site. It is predefined.
In dynamic websites, content of script can be changed at the run time. Its content is regenerated every time a user visit or reload. Google, yahoo and every search engine is the example of dynamic website.
PHP constants are name or identifier that can’t be changed during execution of the script. PHP constants are defined in two ways:
- Using define() function
- Using const() function
The header() function is used to send a raw HTTP header to a client. It must be called before sending the actual output. For example, you can’t print any HTML element before using this function.
- Scalar type declarations
- Return type declarations
- Null coalescing operator (??)
- Spaceship operator
- Constant arrays using define()
- Anonymous classes
- Closure::call method
- Group use declaration
- Generator return expressions
- Generator delegation
- Space ship operator
The scripting engine that powers PHP is called Zend Engine 2.
PHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor. It is an open source server-side scripting language which is widely used for web development. It supports many databases like MySQL, Oracle, Sybase, Solid, PostgreSQL, generic ODBC etc.
PHP magic constants are predefined constants, which change based on their use. They start with a double underscore (__) and end with a double underscore (__).
The isset() function checks if the variable is defined and not null.
PHP echo output one or more string. It is a language construct not a function. So the use of parentheses is not required. But if you want to pass more than one parameter to echo, the use of parentheses is required.
void echo ( string $arg1 [, string $… ] )
PHP4 doesn’t support oops concept and uses Zend Engine 1.
PHP5 supports oops concept and uses Zend Engine 2.
Require and include both are used to include a file, but if data is not found include sends warning whereas require sends Fatal error.
PHP parameterized functions are functions with parameters. You can pass any number of parameters inside a function. These given parameters act as variables inside your function. They are specified inside the parentheses, after the function name. Output depends upon dynamic values passed as parameters into the function.
The indexed array holds elements in an indexed form which is represented by number starting from 0 and incremented by 1. For example:
The associative array holds elements with name. For example:
The Include() function is used to put data of one PHP file into another PHP file. If errors occur, then the include() function produces a warning but does not stop the execution of the script, and it will continue to execute.
The Require() function is also used to put data of one PHP file to another PHP file. If there are any errors, then the require() function produces a warning and a fatal error and stops the script.
The mysqli_connect() function is used to create a connection in PHP.
resource mysqli_connect (server, username, password)
The .htaccess is a configuration file on Apache server. You can change configuration settings using directives in Apache configuration files like .htaccess and httpd.conf.
The unlink() function is used to delete a file in PHP.
bool unlink (string $filename)
PHP setcookie() function is used to set cookie with HTTP response. Once the cookie is set, you can access it by $_COOKIE superglobal variable.
bool setcookie ( string $name [, string $value [, int $expire = 0 [, string $path
[, string $domain [, bool $secure = false [, bool $httponly = false ]]]]]] )
PHP supports variable length argument function. It means you can pass 0, 1 or n number of arguments in function. To do this, you need to use 3 ellipses (dots) before the argument name. The 3 dot concept is implemented for variable length argument since PHP 5.6.
PHP session_start() function is used to start the session. It starts new or resumes the current session. It returns the current session if the session is created already. If the session is not available, it creates and returns new sessions.
The strlen() function is used to get the length of the string.
You should just run the PHP command line interface (CLI) and specify the file name of the script to be executed as follows.
A cookie is used to identify a user. A cookie is a little record that the server installs on the client’s Computer. Each time a similar PC asks for a page with a program, it will send the cookie as well. With PHP, you can both make and recover cookie value.
Some important points regarding Cookies:
- Cookies maintain the session id generated at the back end after verifying the user’s identity in encrypted form, and it must reside in the browser of the machine
- You can store only string values not object because you can’t access any object across the website or web apps
- Scope: – Multiple pages.
- By default, cookies are temporary and transitory cookie saves in the browser only.
- By default, cookies are URL particular means Gmail isn’t supported in Yahoo and the vice versa.
- Per site 20 cookies can be created in one website or web app
- The Initial size of the cookie is 50 bytes.
- The Maximum size of the cookie is 4096 bytes.
Since PHP 4.3, mysql_reate_db() is deprecated. Now you can use the following 2 alternatives.
The PHP explode() function breaks a string into an array.
There are many array functions in PHP:
echo $_COOKIE [“user“];
PHP supports variable length argument function. It means you can pass 0, 1 or n number of arguments.
The move_uploaded_file() function is used to upload file in PHP.
bool move_uploaded_file ( string $filename , string $destination )
PHP parser parses the PHP developed website from the opening to the closing tag. Tags indicate that from where PHP code is being started and ended. In other words, opening and closing tags decide the scope of PHP scripting syntax of closing tag in PHP
syntax of closing tag in PHP
By default, the maximum execution time for PHP scripts is set to 30 seconds. If a script takes more than 30 seconds, PHP stops the script and returns an error.
You can change the script run time by changing the max_execution_time directive in the php.ini file.
When a script is called, set_time_limit function restarts the timeout counter from zero. It means, if default timer is set to 30 sec, and 20 sec is specified in function set_time_limit(), then script will run for 45 seconds. If 0sec is specified in this function, script takes unlimited time.
The main difference between session and cookie is that cookies are stored on user’s computer in the text file format while sessions are stored on the server side.
Cookies can’t hold multiple variables, on the other hand, Session can hold multiple variables.
You can manually set an expiry for a cookie, while session only remains active as long as browser is open.
The PHP split() function splits string into an array by regular expression.
There are two methods GET and POST.
PHP Engine creates a logical object to preserve data across subsequent HTTP requests, which is known as session.
Sessions generally store temporary data to allow multiple PHP pages to offer a complete functional transaction for the same user.
Simply, it maintains data of an user (browser).
An array is used to store multiple values in a single value. In PHP, it orders maps of pairs of keys and values. It saves the collection of the data type.
The readfile() function is used to download the file in PHP.
int readfile ( string $filename )
The necessary steps to create a MySQL database using PHP are:
- Establish a connection to MySQL server from your PHP script.
- If the connection is successful, write a SQL query to create a database and store it in a string variable.
- Execute the query.
There are 3 types of error in PHP.
- Notices:These are non-critical errors. These errors are not displayed to the users.
- Warnings:These are more serious errors, but they do not result in script termination. By default, these errors are displayed to the user.
- Fatal Errors:These are the most critical errors. These errors may cause due to immediate termination of script.
PHP fopen() function is used to open file or URL and returns resource. It accepts two arguments: $filename and $mode.
resource fopen ( string $filename , string $mode [, bool $use_include_path = false [, resource $context ]] )
A session creates a file in a temporary directory on the server where registered session variables and their session id are stored. This data will be available to all pages on the site amid that visit.
The area of the temporary record is controlled by a setting in the php.ini document called session.save_path.
At the point when a session is begun following things happen –
- PHP first makes two duplicates of one of a kind session id for that particular session of the client which is an arbitrary string of 32 hexadecimal numbers, for example, 3c7foj34c3jjhkyepop2fc937e3443.
- One copy of unique session id automatically sent to the user?s computer for the sake of synchronization in future ahead, and one copy is being maintained at server side till the session is running.
- Whenever you want to access the page of website or web app, then session id of the current user will be associated with the HTTP header, and that will be compared by the session id which is being maintained at the server. After completing the comparison process, you can easily access the page of the website or web app
- A session ends when the user closes the browser, or after leaving the site, the server will terminate the session after a predetermined period, commonly 30 minutes duration.
There are three types of array in PHP:
- Indexed array: an array with a numeric key.
- Associative array: an array where each key has its specific value.
- Multidimensional array: an array containing one or more arrays within itself.
The mail() function is used to send email in PHP.
The exit() function is used to stop the execution of PHP script.
PHP provides various functions to read data from the file. Different functions allow you to read all file data, read data line by line, and read data character by character.
PHP file read functions are given below:
A persistent cookie is permanently stored in a cookie file on the browser’s computer. By default, cookies are temporary and are erased if we close the browser.
PHP allows you to include file so that page content can be reused again. There are two ways to add the file in PHP.
There are many array functions in PHP:
imagetypes() gives the image format and types supported by the current version of GD-PHP.
There are two methods to connect MySQL database with PHP. Procedural and object-oriented style.
CRYPT() and MD5()
PHP fwrite() and fputs() functions are used to write data into file. To write data into a file, you need to use w, r+, w+, x, x+, c or c+ mode.