In case, Serialization is not used, Java objects can be serialized by many ways, some of the popular methods are listed below:
- Saving object state to database, this is most common technique used by most applications. You can use ORM tools (e.g. hibernate) to save the objects in a database and read them from the database.
- Xml based data transfer is another popular mechanism, and a lot of XML based web services use this mechanism to transfer data over network. Also a lot of tools save XML files to persist data/configurations.